Monday, May 8, 2017

Searchlight Signals

Southern Pacific used Union Switch and Signal H-2 searchlight signals in most of the system when they were using Automatic Block Signals.  On the Coast Line most of the semaphore signals were replaced by searchlights in the late 1940's.  These signals lasted until the Union Pacific merger in 1996 when some were replaced by tri-lights.  Some survived in some of the more remote areas but almost all are gone.  One issue is that they have moving parts that need to be maintained.  The newer digital signals have no moving parts and are thought to be more reliable.

I do not have any signals on my layout yet, but when I do they will be searchlights.  I do have a working searchlight but it is full sized.

I did not have a pole for it.  The prototypes were often attached to the old semaphore poles.  These were about 5 1/2 inches in diameter.  I had a basketball pole that I was not using but it is about 3 1/2 inches in diameter, so I had to do some special accommodation.  I took the challenge with a drawing and the support arm to a local welder.  He came up with a welded steel cap that fit over the top of the basketball poll.  The cap had tabs on it to hold the support arm while it was tightened.  It also had concentric rings inside so that it stayed relatively vertical on the pole when the weight of the signal on the support arm was applied to the cap.

bottom of pole cap showing concentric inside and support tabs

Side view of pole cap
Before actually installing the signal, the pole was cleaned, sanded and repainted with a Rustoleum primer and then an aluminum outer coat.  Other parts were also touched up including the disk that fits around the signal.
Painted former basketball pole
I also buried some PVC pipe going from near the garage to near the pole and installed some electrical wire to carry the less-than-12 volt current to the signal.
Aluminum painted PVC at base of pole

Aluminum painted PVC at Garage end

Having all the parts ready to go, I gathered a few ladders and invited the local model railroad club over to assist in mounting the signal.  About 6 or 7 members showed up to assist.  We did this at the end of October after 7:30 in the evening so I had a light or two on outside but we also a strong beam flashlight that one of them directed on the work being done.  One took photos while work progressed. Two assisted me in mounting the different parts including the oldest member of the group present - 78 years old.

The pole adaptor had already been put in place so the first to go up was the long support arm.  It weighs about 40 pounds.
Long Support arm on the ground  Note:bearing surface for signal housing.

Lifting support arm up the ladders.  Note adaptor cap on top of pole

Support arm in place on pole

Next we muscled the housing up and placed it on the arm,  The housing assembly weighs about 100 pounds so it was a struggle to lift it up the nine feet to the support arm and get it in place.   This was especially difficult as it was done from ladders.  Makes you wish you had a boom truck like the railroads to hoist the parts in place.
Muscling the housing up the 9 feet to the top of the pole
Trying to align the pin and the housing onto the bearing surface

The housing finally in place, the bolts are being secured

Next the target disk was hoisted and installed.
Lifting the target in place

Securing the target disk

Bottom view showing securing the target disk

Attaching the hood

Now that it looked like a searchlight signal we installed the mechanism.  The mechanism has all the moving parts and electrical connections and is enclosed in a glass case.  It is designed to be removable by signal maintainers and repaired in the shop and just installed.  I had already tested the mechanism so it was in working order.
Attaching the electrical wires
Back of housing showing mechanism in place and connected.
Close up of Mechanism label and maintenance sheet

The electrical power was attached and we tried the signal.  It was on but hard to see as the signal was adjusted to be parallel to the ground so it shone in a beam 9 feet above the ground.
Just barely make out the red signal as it shines over our heads

Eventually, I adjusted the signal so it shines down right at our front door.  Here are some photos from the front door in the daylight.

The signal is countrolled by a DPDT toggle switch inside the garage.

Inside the housing was a maintenance card for the signal.  Hopefully, the signal will continue to function fine so I will not have to do maintenance.
Weathered (mold and rust) maintenance card

Here is hoping you always have Green Signals!

Saturday, October 22, 2016

White Hills Excursion

This post is only marginally related to my model railroad but thought I would share it.

I recently acquired a program/guide for an excursion to Lompoc and White Hills that was arranged by the Pacific Railroad Society on August 16, 1953.

The excursion was run under steam with San Diego & Eastern locomotive 103.  The Baldwin 2-8-0 was built in July of 1907 and came to Southern Pacific new as 2523.  The locomotive was sold to John Spreckles San Diego & Arizona on March 17, 1921.  It was sold back to the Southern Pacific just before the war in May 1941.  It came back to the San Diego & Arizona Eastern in September of 1948.  The SD&AE was a wholly owned subsidiary of the Southern Pacific since 1932 so these were basically paper transfers.  The locomotive was often seen on the Coast.   An additional Baldwin diesel assisted during the excursion.

Here is the program

And here is a Donald Duke photo of the train at the White Hills Mine

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

First True Test Run

On December 6, 2014, I attempted my first true operating session.
It has been a long time coming and ended up much different than the session described in an earlier post when all I had was a bench with a long track and one turnout.
After posting the video of a train running on the layout, my friend Al suggested it was time for an op session.  I said I wanted to get "closer" and he argued that I was there and I needed to host.  I agreed and set the date about a month out and worked hard to get "closer".
Over the next few weeks, a certain Mr. Murphy, of Murphy's Law fame, came to visit me on numerous occasions.  Every time things got resolved or I felt like I was making progress, he would show up leading to frustration and stress over the upcoming event.  I felt like going into the layout room to work was taking me in the wrong direction with the layout further from operational each time I attacked a problem.
One day, with less than a week before the scheduled session, I became seriously frustrated.  A short appeared in the morning which affected the entire upper deck because  of the way I have wired the layout.  I finally found and resolved that problem early that evening but then another problem  cropped up which put the Lompoc Branch and White Hills out of commission.  No power seemed to be getting by the PSX-AR on the wye.  I still had over 10 turnouts that were not reliable meaning any train that tried to go over them would derail.  
In an effort to resolve the issues with the shorts, I installed 5 circuit breakers for different districts so that I can easily see where the problem area is and it no longer affects the entire layout.  Some progress was being made in the midst of the problems. 
I finally resolved the other power issue and concentrated on the turnouts but ran out of time.
I was not the only person Mr Murphy was visiting.  One of the crew managed to get water in the fuel tank of his truck and was not sure he was going to have transportation to the session.  Fortunately, he fixed the problem and arrived that morning ready to give the layout its first real test.
Eight very supportive friends came over and attempted to  run trains for close to two hours.  Paul C was Santa Barbara yardmaster, assisted by Bill M.  Jon C took the Carpinteria local and Bob L took the Lompoc local.  Al D, Chris B, and Mike L ran the road trains.  John R operated the "critter" job running both the 45-ton Vandenberg switcher and the SW1500 in-plant White Hills switcher.

There ended up being too little work for the yard guys.  One manifest made it all the way.  One Amtrak made its run.  One local made it to the turn then had a major derailment on the way back.
The other local made it to the turn point and had finished switching ready to return.

Biggest problem was everyone experience issues with track work.  I have been fighting it for a while.  Some of the crews even did work during their run.
Jon C working on the west switch of the Carpinteria House Track
General recommendations were to replace all the  turnout with commercially built turnouts.
While I did not invite him, Mr. Murphy did show up for the session.  One of the road trains was the BACIT running East across the layout.  This is an empty intermodal train.  Mike L was engineer and ably took the train from east staging all the way up the inner helix and onto the upper deck.  One car kept giving him problems.  When he examined the car more closely, he found a wheel with one of the flanges on the outside!  None of us had ever seen this before and were amazed Mike had managed to get the train so far.

Wheel set with one flange (left) on the outside. 
Taken from a car on the BACIT train after somehow successfully managing the inner helix to the upper level.   

I appreciated all the encouragement that the group gave me.   Al is correct that I have gotten more done in less time than I would have if I had not invited them all over for an operating session.  Everyone seemed to have a reasonable time even with the frustrating track work.  I had some light lunch and everyone stayed.  Thanks again to my initial crew for a good test.  Now it is back to work on the track work.
Here are some additional photos from the session.

Jon C and Mike L with the BACIT train crossing the Santa Ynez River into Surf

Yard crew, Bill M and Paul C, relaxing with not enough to do!

Jon C and Chris B at Santa Barbara

Al D with west bound manifest train approaching DeVon

Crew enjoying snacks and discussion after the session

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Hauling Coke on the Southern Pacific Santa Barbara Subdivision

Yet another train for the SP Santa Barbara Subdivision...petroleum coke.

This train originates at Callender and carries petroleum coke produced at the refinery there.  The refinery was originally owned by Union Oil of California.  It has changed hands several times including Tosco, Conoco, and now, Phillips.  The 'green' coke was further processed at an adjacent facility originally operated by Collier Carbon and Chemical Co., a wholly owned subsidiary of Union Oil of California.  The calcining plant heated the green coke and drove off more impurities as well as slightly changing the physical nature of the coke, making it a more efficient fuel source.  The calcining plant was closed in March 2007 to reduce air pollution in an agreement with the local air pollution control district.  Information about the closure and the coke stockpile reduction is available in the Conoco Phillips Santa Maria Refinery Throughput Increase DEIR (draft environmental impact report) starting on page 2-13. 
The report also includes reference to multiple unit trains, typically 22 cars each carrying approximately 100 tons of green coke, transport a shipload of petroleum coke to the ports.
There was a bulk loader in San Pedro.  I remember it in the late 60's and was intriqued by the rotary dumper.  It was just off Miner Street, but that is all gone now, replaced by yacht marinas.
In previous times unit trains were sent north over Altamont Pass to the Port of Stockton and also to Trona via a connection to the Trona Railway by way of the Jawbone Branch of the SP east of Mojave.  Here are a couple photos of those earlier trains.
Jim Evans photo of the rear of a coke train eastbound
over Altamont Pass for delivery to the Port of Stockton

Later 1995 train passing Santa Barbara

Currently, the green coke is transported in hoppers with special fabricated covers.  Some of it is still shipped out of the LA/LB Harbor area at the Metropolitan Stevadores
facility located South of Harbor Plaza between Pier F Ave. and Pier G Ave. with the ships coming in to basin 6.  Here is a photo.
Newer covered hoppers at the Metropolitan Stevedore facility in Long Beach.
Note the MetroPorts locomotive.

Here are some photos of the Callender facility.
Aerial view from Bing Maps

Loading facility at Callender

Sulfur piles at Callender.  The sulfur is removed as part of the refining process.
The elemental sulfur is shipped primarily by truck but the plant does have facilities for rail transport.

Currently they are using some GACX hoppers that have covers due to a problem several years ago when the coke blew off the top of several hoppers and down onto the beach under the Gaviota Trestle.  Not knowing what the material was the hazardous material team was called out.  After the incident, Santa Barbara County asked UP to cover the loads.  [Petroleum coke is like coal - fairly inert.]

In the past I remember seeing a mix of hoppers, usually 100-ton but also some smaller ones.  I think my memory is more of the later 1990's after the UP was running the train.  Mostly UP owned hoppers - UP, SP, MP, CHTT, DRGW, etc.

I  am using Walthers 100-ton quad hoppers and some Bowser 3-bay hoppers.  I cut some bass wood to fit the openings.  I glued a fender washer to the basswood so that I could remove the load with a magnet.  I then covered the bass wood blank with real coal - not coke - and secured it with dilute white glue.  I did put some drops of isopropyl alcohol on the coal first to encourage the glue to penetrate all areas of the coal.  Here are a couple in process photos.
Bass wood cut into blanks to fit the hoppers

Blanks showing fender washers in place and some finished loads drying

Here are some photos of the finished loads in place.

Loaded Coke train passing through Santa Barbara

Loaded coke train passing Santa Barbara Depot

On to the next project.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Perishables and Intermodals for the SP Santa Barbara Subdivision

Two more trains for the SP Santa Barbara Subdivision...
One of the bigger industries on my layout is lemon packing.  There are currently three packing houses - two in Carpinteria, and one in Santa Barbara.  Eventually, there will be a model of the Goleta Lemon Association.  There will be lots of action delivering empty refrigerator cars to the packing houses and then collecting the loaded reefers back to the Santa Barbara Yard.
The Southern Pacific had a train that started in San Luis Obispo and headed east with just power and a caboose.  As it passed towns like Oceano and Guadalupe, it would pick up loaded reefers of produce.  The train was affectionately called the Smokey.  It would sometimes pick up Lompoc produce left at Surf before heading to Santa Barbara to pick up loaded citrus.  Then one more stop in Oxnard before heading to Colton where it would be combined with other area perishable traffic to head east on the Sunset Route.

Here is a photo of the prototype.
Charles Lange photo of the 'Smokey' just railroad west of Santa Barbara in December of 1973.

I will run the train east with a few reefers representing the Oceano and Guadalupe loads and then make the additional pick-ups as it moves east across the Santa Barbara Subdivision.
Here is a photo of the eastbound train crossing the Santa Ynez river.

'Smokey' passing over the Santa Ynez River bridge
Another traffic along the coast was the intermodal traffic.  Starting with trailers earlier and containers later, the traffic moved to and from both the Bay Area and Los Angeles.  Typical trailer trains included the Bay Area City of Industry Trailers (BACIT) and the reverse City of Industry Bay Area Trailers (CIBAT).  For more information on symbol trains on the Coast take a look at John Carr's CarrTracks  
For more a more recent discussion of current freight traffic look at Cuesta Pass Rails

Gerald Putz photo of a BACIT nearing Seacliff in November 1990

So currently I have two intermodal trains.  The westbound is loaded and the eastbound is empty.
Here are some photos of the two trains.

BACIT in West Staging.
Eastbound manifest train on adjacent track.

CIBAT just west of Carpinteria

CIBAT passing a lemon grove east of Summerland.

Saturday, November 15, 2014

A Rock Train for the SP Santa Barbara Sub

I am still working on track issues but it is getting close enough that I have set a date for an operating session.  I am working hard at getting everything ready.  One of the tasks I have almost finished is creating a train lineup of all the trains I want to run during the session.  One of the big problems is to actually put together all of those trains. 
One of the problems I share with some of my other fellow model railroaders is I purchase cars or kits that I think I will use on the layout long before I have my layout operating.  Now that I need them for the operation session, I need to find them and, in some cases, actually build the kits.  Down the road a bit I will weather them so they don't look like there have never rolled over the railroad.
The first train I put together is a special unit train since it was ready to run.  It represents a train I saw September 4, 2007.  That is over a decade after the era I am currently modeling so I hope the prototype police are not monitoring this.  The train was headed west to the Granite Rock quarry at Logan just railroad west of Watsonville Junction.  It was a solid train of  empty 100-ton Greenville hoppers designed to hold aggregate.  Here are a few photos of the train holding the siding at Goleta.
The train was long enough for me to use several overpasses
to view and photograph the train.
This shot is looking toward the front of the train. 

An SP hopper with the UP herald.

A Golden West and SP hopper.

Looking toward the back of the train.

Here is that rare view from the top, looking down into the hoppers.

Just months before, in May 2007, I had visited the quarry as part of the Pacific Coast Region NMRA convention.  The quarry was originally opened by the Southern Pacific but sold in 1904.  The same family still owns and operates the quarry.  The San Andreas Fault runs along the north side of the quarry.  This is interesting as just two years after purchasing the quarry from SP, it became the source of aggregate for concrete used in the rebuilding of San Francisco after the April 1906 earthquake. Here are a few photos from the quarry.
Here is the huge crusher at the working face of the quarry.
The conveyor at the left takes the rock about a mile west to the loader next to the Coast main.

Here is some of the rudimentary engine service facility.  Note the power truck in the center foreground and the Granite Rock hoppers and locomotive in the background. 

Here is a shot of the loading facility.  Hoppers and locomotives in the background.

Golden West hopper

Southern Pacific hopper

Granite Rock locomotive with a string of cars.  Our bus is visible extreme left.
They allowed up up on the engine.  Note the yellow caution sign just above the rear truck.
It reads 'WARNING All tracks in this yard are live. Any car can move at any time. Locomotive runs on remote control.' 

Here is a shot of the remote control.  Switches read 'FWD/REV' 'Train Line Apply Release' 'Headlight On Off'
Controls are visible on the left side.  Not quite as complex as my DCC throttles but quite a bit larger!

And finally, here is a short model of the train passing through Carpinteria on the Santa Barbara Subdivision.
Head end passing Linden Ave in Carpinteria

Middle of train

Rear of train 

Stay tuned for the next train.